Testing the Mental Toughness Model in the Setting of Chinese Martial Arts



  • Veronika PARTIKOVA Hong Kong Baptist University, HONG KONG




Mental toughness, mental skills, martial arts


BACKGROUND: Aim of this paper is to test the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ) in the setting of Chinese martial arts. The target population is adult European practitioners of modern and traditional wushu. Mental toughness is an established concept of being able to perform under pressure while remaining positive and perseverant. However, it has not yet been tested on this population. It is argued that Chinese martial arts can generate unique types of pressure situations, such as dealing with pain, body to body contact, fear of sparring, and a lack of designated levels of achievement, such as a belt ranking system. 

METHODS: 277 respondents (85 female) were sampled from 28 countries. The exploratory factor analysis was conducted in SPSS, and internal consistency was calculated. Confirmatory factor analysis using AMOS was used to evaluate the model fit.

RESULTS: The EFA resulted in losing four items, with two items switching places on the components. The model reached a good fit of x 2/df = 1.307, IFI = .965, CFI = .963 and RMSEA = .047.

CONCLUSIONS: This paper provided the validation of the SMTQ scale for a Chinese martial arts setting. Researching mental skills in the specific environment of Chinese martial arts may be a fruitful direction for further research, especially when developing a mental skills training program for this population. The modified model resulting from this study is the first step in this respect. Moreover, it confirms the recently discussed multidimensionality of the mental toughness model.


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How to Cite

PARTIKOVA, V. (2018). Testing the Mental Toughness Model in the Setting of Chinese Martial Arts: 中國武術運動員的心理素質. Asian Journal of Physical Education &Amp; Recreation, 24(1), 36–43. https://doi.org/10.24112/ajper.241759