An Investigation of the Coaching Behaviours among Singapore Coaches



  • Ian R. HASLAM (夏斯林) Nanyang Technological University, SINGAPORE (新加坡南洋理工大學)
  • Dan E. SMITH (史密斯) Nanyang Technological University, SINGAPORE (新加坡南洋理工大學)



LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in English; abstract also in Chinese.

Athletic performance is the result of interactions among the athlete, coach and performance environment. Each of these factors is critical to performance outcomes. This study is designed to improve our understanding of these interactions, with a focus on coaching in Singapore. Salmela (1996) and colleagues (Cote & Dowd, 1996; Cote, Salmela & Russell, 1995 a, b) recently conducted an in-depth and extensive research project on Canadian expert coaches. The results have provided a knowledge base grounded in coach's realities. The qualitative data gained from expert coaches has lead to the development of a questionnaire, the Coaching Behaviour Scale (CBS) aimed at assessing coaching behaviours from the athletes perspective. Preliminary tests of the Scale reveals most of the subscales to have a high degree of internal consistency and that the factor structure approximates the original theoretical framework. These are preliminary findings and there is need to develop the scale further. The purpose of this study is broadly two fold. Firstly the study will contribute to the on going validation of the CBS developed by Cote and Yardley from Brock University in Canada secondly, it will serve as a preliminary study of the coaching behaviours and overall coaching characteristics of Singapore national coaches.



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How to Cite

HASLAM, I. R., & SMITH, D. E. (2001). An Investigation of the Coaching Behaviours among Singapore Coaches: 探討星加坡敎練員的指導行為. Asian Journal of Physical Education &Amp; Recreation, 7(1), 21–25.