Differences of Gender and Race on the Level of Physical Fitness of Students at Two Midwestern Middle Schools in United States
Keywords:Fitness, Gender, Physical Education, Race, Muscular Strength and Endurance, 體適能, 性別, 體育, 種族, 肌力與肌耐力
LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in English; abstract also in Chinese.
This quantitative study measured physical strength and endurance fitness scores of 132 students at two Midwestern middle schools who participated in daily and non-daily physical education classes. A comparison for gender and race was made for the two schools during the 2005/06 school year. Data was gathered using the Fitnessgram, a tool that evaluates fitness performance using criterion-referenced standards. Results indicated that students at the daily physical education on an average scored higher (m=24.5) on push-ups than students at the non-daily school (m=11.9). However, the non-daily PE students scored higher on sit-ups (m=48.2) than the daily PE students (m=36.8). It was concluded that although the state of Iowa does not mandate physical education in elementary, middle, and high school, it was essential that school children have daily physical education to ensure good health and promotion of high academic performance.
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