An Interpretation of the Word “Qingan” and Related Matters as Recorded in Zuozhuan: An Evidence of Agreements between Zuozhuan and Yili
Keywords:《左傳》, 《儀禮》, 齊景公, 魯昭公, 子家羈, 饗, 飲酒, 宰, 請安, Zuozhuan, Yili, Lord Jing of Qi, Lord Zhao of Lu, Zijia Ji, Feast, Banquet, Zai, Qingan
LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in Chinese; abstract also in English.
As recorded in Zuozhuan, after driven into exile by Ji Pingzi (季平子), Lord Zhao of Lu (魯昭公) sought refuge in Qi (齊) and resided in Yun (鄆) on the Qi border thereafter. One day, Lord Jing of Qi (齊景公)invited Lord Zhao to a banquet. Zijia Ji (子家羈, one of Lord Zhao’s high officers) who accompanied Lord Zhao said that Lord Jing in fact did not intend to host a formal feast in honour of Lord Zhao but rather invite him to drink wine merely for amusement. It turned out that Duke Jing did not treat Lord Zhao according to proper etiquette, just as what Zijia Ji had anticipated. Instead of offering wine to Lord Zhao by himself, Lord Jing sent Zai (宰, Duke Jing’s family retainer) serving as the master of ceremonies to toast the guest. Zai thereupon asked the guest to sit down and carry on drinking. Duke Jing asked for Lord Zhao’s permission to let his concubine Chong (重) to join them. Zijia Ji and Lord Zhao left the venue before Chong appeared. There is one keyword namely “Qingan” (請安) used in the narrative that has attracted much discussions since ancient times. The present article proposes an approach by combining meaning with syntax and taking both the narrative and ritual into consideration. It argues that the word refers to a specific etiquette of banquet, and that the word conforms with its counterpart in Yili (儀禮). This is evident of the agreement between Zuozhuan and Yili. Lord Jing’s rhetoric barely masks the reality of treating Lord Zhao as an implicit officer instead of a ruler. Inviting Chong to join the banquet also violated ritual propriety.
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