歐陽修《贈王介甫》“吏部文章二百年”用典爭議考

The Controversy of the Allusion “Two Hundred Years of Writing of the Ministry of Personnel” in Ouyang Xiu’s “A Gift Poem for Wang Jiefu”

Authors

  • 姜龍翔 (CHIANG Lung Hsiang) 高雄師範大學國文學系

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24112/sinohumanitas.342270

Keywords:

歐陽修, 王安石, 酬贈詩, 吏部, 奉酬永叔見贈, Ouyang Xiu, Wang Anshi, gift poems, Ministry of Personnel, “A Poem in Response to Yongshu’s Gift Poem”

Abstract

LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in Chinese; abstract also in English.

歐陽修曾寫下“吏部文章二百年”詩句贈送給王安石,但後世文人對“吏部”指涉對象解釋紛歧,甚至産生許多扭曲二人形象的故事。此文透過分析歷代筆記、詩話作品中的相關記録,整理出宋朝文人對此詩句典故有不同的解釋,有以爲這是沈約稱讚謝朓之語,有以爲這是出自孫樵的文章。並且根據典故來源的不同説法,也發展出了影響二人形象的各種附會故事。這些探索多出於文人閲讀相關文獻時的個人領會,在未有明確證據的情況下,重新解讀詩歌典故,甚至不惜顛倒事實。此文更進一步探討歐陽修發揚韓愈文章的時間點,以及孫樵批評韓愈的用意,指出“吏部”確實指韓愈,“二百年”是歐陽修繼承韓愈文章的時間,“吏部文章二百年”是歐陽修創造的詩句,並無典故來源。透過此文的論述,除可釐清爭議之來龍去脈,對歐陽修、王安石二人形象有更確切的認識外,此文依資料産生順序臚列排比的比較方法,也有助於提供讀者實例,了解如何辨析詩話、筆記中對相關詩文典故説法的原則。

Ouyang Xiu (1007-1072) wrote a verse that reads “Two hundred years of writing of the Ministry of Personnel” to Wang Anshi (1021-1086). Scholars of later generations have different views on the referent of “Ministry of Personnel,” which resulted in distortion of the images of Ouyang and Wang in anecdotal records. By analyzing the journals and notes on poetry, this study surveys the different explanations of the allusion to the Ministry of Personnel found in Song- dynasty sources. Some argued that the phrase carries Shen Yue’s (441-531) praise of Xie Tiao (464-499), while others suggested that it was derived from the writing of Sun Qiao (ca. 867). The different theories on the source of this allusion have resulted in various anecdotes with denigration of the images of Ouyang and Wang. These speculative views were mainly based on the personal interpretation of respective scholars. Without offering specific evidence, these premature views of the allusion in the poem even form distortion of the truth. The present study further explores the time when Ouyang Xiu glorified the writing of Han Yu (768-824) and when Sun Qiao criticized Han, and thereby argues that “the Ministry of Personnel” refers to Han and “two hundred years” to the time when Ouyang Xiu succeeded Han’s literary legacy. The verse “two hundred years of writing of the Ministry of Personnel” was not an allusion but was Ouyang Xiu’s creation. This study can clarify the context of the controversy and reconstruct the accurate images of Ouyang Xiu and Wang Anshi. In addition, through an analysis of the sequence and comparison of relevant data, this study provides examples and allows readers to recognize and analyze the poetry and the interpretations of allusions as recorded and discussed in notes on poetry.

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Published

2022-07-01

Issue

Section

論文