Respiratory Health and Nutritional Strategy for Competitive Swimmers
Keywords:Athletes, airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, nutrient supplementation, 運動選手, 呼吸道過度反應, 發炎, 營養補充
LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in English; abstract also in Chinese.
There is growing interest in the potentially harmful effects in swimming pools, and the potential for swimming-related health hazards, which is gaining importance in competitive swimmers. This review was focused to discuss the following topics: (1) prevalence of respiratory difficulties in swimmers; (2) the possible factors and mechanisms which lead to the development of airway disorders in elite swimmers; (3) diet and nutrient supplementation for the management and prevention of airway problems. Summaries were concluded in this review according to the current knowledge of the respiratory problems in swimmers: (1) a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases in the elite swimmer population; (2) the potentially harmful effects in airway epithelial damage and lung permeability may caused by exposure in cold air, chlorinated products in swimming pools, and high intensity training in swimmers. (3) Observational studies have reported associations between airway symptoms and nutritional intervention (i.e. polyunsaturated fatty acid, dietary antioxidants, and vitamin D), which may have application for promoting health and sports performance for swimmers.
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