試論梁佩蘭“自成面目”詩論體系之價值及其與嶺南文化傳統之關係

The Value of Liang Peilan's Poetics of “Self-Fashioned Idiosyncrasy” and its Relationship with the Cultural Tradition of Lingnan

Authors

  • 董就雄 (DUNG Chau Hung) 香港珠海學院中國文學系

Keywords:

梁佩蘭, 嶺南三大家, 自成面目, 詩論, 嶺南文化傳統, Liang Peilan, Three Great Masters of Lingnan, “self-fashioned idiosyncrasy”, Poetics, Cultural Tradition of Lingnan

Abstract

LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in Chinese; abstract also in English.

明末清初嶺南三大家之一梁佩蘭詩論最突出之處乃在於擺脱當時宗唐與宗宋之二元對立,提出“自成面目”之論。此詩論自成體系,經歷多年醖釀而成,是佩蘭詩學思想之核心。其論與創作實踐相結合,並體現在其一生創作之各個階段,在清初詩壇甚爲少見。此論以“自成面目”説爲總綱,下分“天地真聲”説、“殖學務本”説、“大筆大墨”説三主軸。其主張寫詩以自成面目爲終極;首先須自道其真情;還須有先天後天之才,而先天不可强,故須殖學;才情兼備後,乃極其思以求化,寫出變化莫測之境界;最後以大筆大墨之題材範圍之。此詩論乃針對明代以來復古摹擬、幽深僻冷、淺率俚俗等詩風及流弊而發,其論首重性情之真,强調殖學,從學問中化出性情,先天後天之才並舉;客觀上正可去除公安派俚俗、過於率真之失,以及竟陵派幽僻之弊,同時有挽救復古派摹古而乏真情之病。佩蘭欲超脱宗唐宗宋之對立、調和各家之用意彰彰甚明。而此理論承繼唐順之“真精神”、公安派“真則我面不能同君面”之説以及錢謙益“學殖以深其根”的見解;並較好地吸取公安派重真之説,以殖學、温厚去其淺率俚俗。其同時又接續嶺南禪宗、心學、《易》學、文學等自成面目之學術文化傳統,尤其是上接嶺南文學傳統中多重革新之一面。其論儘管受前人論見及嶺南傳統影響,但在嶺南以至清初詩壇,正式將“自成面目”楬櫫成詩論,並形成完備體系,在多篇文章中發表,有“自成面目”之思維覺醒,且視之爲嶺南獨異於中原之詩歌特色,則當以梁佩蘭爲代表。

The most prominent feature of the poetics of Liang Peilan (1630- 1705), one of the “Three Great Masters of Lingnan,” is his innovation in promoting the theory of “self-fashioned idiosyncrasy.” This theory features a self-contained system, which had undergone developments for many years before it became the core of Liang's poetic thought. Liang's poetics are closely connected with his creative output and reflected in all stages of his artistic life. This was not a common phenomenon in that period.

The theory of “self-fashioned idiosyncrasy” as its general outline consists of three main principles, namely:1 ) writing in the true voice of heaven and earth, 2) strengthening one's learning of the basics, and 3) writing in a carefree manner on significant themes. Liang advocated “self-fashioned idiosyncrasy' as an ultimate goal. First of all, one must tell one's genuine feelings. One must have innate and acquired talents, the former of which varies from one to another and cannot be acquired through effort; so learning is essential. When one has both talents and feelings, one needs to give full play to imagination and write about the realm of unpredictable changes. Finally,one should write in a carefree manner on significant themes.

This kind of poetics has been directed against the poetic styles of archaism, mimicking, uncommon diction and vulgarity since the Ming Dynasty. Their foremost emphases include: the expression of genuine feelings, the need to cultivate temperament from knowledge, and the simultaneous development of innate and nurtured talents. Objectively speaking, it would remove the vulgarity and flaws of excessive straightforwardness of the Gong'an School and the uncommon diction of the Jingling School. At the same time it would correct the lack of true feelings in the works of the archaists. Liang Peilan had a noble goal to achieve. He aimed at transcending the demarcation of the worship of Tang and Song poetics in order to reconcile various schools.

Liang's poetics were built on the basis of his predecessors. They include: the “true spirit” advocated by Tang Shunzhi (1507-1560) , the theory on udistinct idiosyncrasyn by the Gong'an School and Qian Qianyi's (1582 -1664) insights of ulearning to cultivate one's foundation.n They also adopt the u self-fashioned idiosyncrasy” and emphasis of the truth advocated by the Gong'an School, while discarding its drawbacks of simplicity and vulgarity. At the same time, they are an extension of the academic and cultural traditions of Lingnan Chan Buddhism, Study of the Heart-mind, scholarship of the Book of Changes, and literature, laying special emphases on innovation in the literary tradition of Lingnan. Although Liang's poetics were influenced by some predecessors as well as the Lingnan tradition, he formally proposed the theory of “self-fashioned idiosyncrasy,” published his views in many articles and consummated a complete form of poetics. He often consciously expressed the ideas of “self-fashioned idiosyncrasyn and regarded them as the unique features of Lingnan poetry, differentiated from the poetry of central China. Therefore , Liang Peilan should be seen as the main representative of this campaign.

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Published

2021-12-01

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論文

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