明代通俗文學與社會宗教生活中道教神系的構建———以《西遊記》和《封神演義》爲中心

Influence on the Daoist Gods System among Social Religious by Popular Literature in Ming Dynasty Focusing on the Journey to the West and the Investiture of the Gods

Authors

  • 趙益 (ZHAO Yi) 南京大學文學院

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24112/sinohumanitas.242093

Keywords:

道教神系, 《西遊記》, 《封神演義》, 通俗文學反向作用, Daoist Gods, Journey to the West, Investiture of the Gods, reaction of popular literature

Abstract

LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in Chinese; abstract also in English.

明代中期以後發展興盛的通俗文學,真正具備了世俗性、商業性、普化性的通俗文學本質内涵,起到了溝通大小傳統、摶合集體記憶、傳播教化一般價值觀念、加强社會認同的顯著作用。明代通俗文學的這種反向作用主要是通過對社會一般宗教生活的影響體現出來的,其中重要的一端是神祇系統的構建。衆多的通俗文學作品不僅豐富和發展了民間“萬神殿”、塑造出重要俗神,而且在此過程中,對原有所謂“制度化宗教”特别是本土信仰和創生宗教的包容體———道教的神祇系統也進行了整理乃至新創。以《西遊記》、《封神演義》爲代表的傑出通俗小説都是中下層文人的作品,作者依據民間社會的接受、創造和自己的理解,在文學性的虛構中對道教神系達成了一種近乎義理化的建設。這種建設與道教包容體的“普化”過程相同步,奠定了近世中國社會一般宗教生活的基本格局。

Popular literature shows up greater development and prosperity after the middle period in Ming Dynasty. Meanwhile, it truly comes to possess the essential connotations such as secularity, commercial and epidemicity. In these point, the popular literature has made remarkable effect in linking up the great tradition and small tradition, gathering collective memory, spreading and educating general concepts, along as strengthening social identity. This reaction of popular literature in Ming Dynasty shows it’s influence mainly by impact on the general social religion life, especially the establishment of the Gods System. Numerous popular literature works have not only developed and enriched the folk Pantheon, which means shaped significant folk Gods, but also made collation and innovation in the Taoist Gods system, which is regarded as the original so called institutional religion. Masterpieces of popular literature, such as the Journey to the West, the Investiture of the Gods, are all written by the underclass litterateurs. In the background of literary imaginary, these authors have developed the Taoist Gods system in the way of argumentation by their own comprehension as well as the folk social reception and creation. This development has settled the basic pattern of the Chinese social common religious life in modern times along with the social lifelization of Taoism.

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Published

2017-06-01

Issue

Section

論文