On “He lun”
Keywords:何論, 如何論, 陸游, 《老學庵筆記》, “He lun”, “ru he lun”, Lu You, Miscellanies of the Old Student’s Studio
LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in Chinese; abstract also in English.
In his Miscellanies of the Old Student’s Studio, Lu You (1125-1210) presents a misunderstanding of the term “He lun,” which occurs in the context of the Tang-dynasty imperial examination system. Lu surmises that the term refers to a specific type of argumentative essay requiring the literary devices of comparing and contrasting. In fact, the term was used by Tang people as an abbreviation of He Yan’s (d. 249) Collected Commentaries on Confucius’ Analects. In some cases it simply refers to the Analects itself. In the Tang-Song period, there were indeed essay questions needing to be answered in the form of comparison when making arguments in the imperial examinations. Nonetheless, no proper name was assigned to this specific essay type prior to the Northern Song (960-1127). It was often referred to as “the way to argue” (ru he lun) in the Southern Song (1127-1279).
Copyright (c) 2015 人文中國學報
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The CC BY-NC 4.0 license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and not used for commercial purposes. Copyright on any article is retained by the author(s) and the publisher(s).