The Transformation of the Mulian Story from a Yuan- Dynasty Buddhist Text, Sutra of Buddha’s Sermon on Mahāmaudgalyāyana’s Rescue of His Mother, to Two Literary Texts, The Mulian Precious Scroll and The Putian Mulian Drama
Keywords:《佛説目連救母經》, 《黄籙九幽醮無碍夜齋次第儀》, 鄭振鐸, 《目連救母寶卷》, 《香山寶卷》, 莆田目連戲, Sutra of Buddha’s Sermon on Mahāmaudgalyāyana’s Rescue of His Mother, Yellow Register Recording Sequence of Rituals for all of the Orphan Souls Sinking in the Nine Hells, Precious Scrolls on Mulian Saving His Mother, Xiangshan Precious Scrolls, Putian Drama on the Mulian Story
LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in Chinese; abstract also in English.
元代佛典《佛説目連救母經》（下面略稱爲《目連救母經》）1304年前在浙江寧波出版，之後1346年在日本復刻。中國的原本早就失傳，日本的復刻本却藏在京都金光寺。作者據金光寺所藏本分析，獲得如下的結論：1. 復刻本的文章跟鄭振鐸在《中國俗文學史》中所引《目連救母出離地獄升天寶卷》（下面簡稱爲《目連寶卷》）相同的部分不少。2. 《目連救母經》之中，目連的母親劉氏名字稱爲四真。《目連寶卷》也一樣。閩北莆田目連戲之中，劉氏名字爲四真，可見其繼承於《目連救母經》。閩南目連戲之中，劉氏名字爲世真，大致受閩北劇本的影響。其他地區的目連戲劇本之中，看不見四真這個系統的名字。可見閩北目連戲文本是在元代《目連救母經》（可能經過《目連寶卷》）的影響之下成立的。3. 莆田目連戲末尾演出妙善公主（觀音）的故事，是繼承《香山寶卷》的。4. 據這些事實綜合起來説，莆田目連戲是直接繼承元代《目連救母經》而成立的，而且很可能是受到喜歡寶卷的閩北女子的影響而在元末明初成立的。至少可以推斷，它是明代後期（1582年）成書的鄭之珍本以前的早期目連戲民間劇本。
The Foshuo Mulian jiumu jing (Sutra of Buddha’s Sermon on Mahāmaudgalyāyana’s Rescue of His Mother) was first published in 1304 in Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, but later became lost in China. It was reprinted and published in Japan in 1346, and this edition is now preserved in Kōkōji Buddhist Monastery in Kyoto. The present article is a study of this edition and draws the following conclusions:
- The Ming-dynasty Mulian jiumu baojuan (Precious Scroll of How Mulian Saved His Mother) cited in Zheng Zhenduo’s (1898-1958) History of Chinese Vernacular Literature contains several parts which are identical with the Foshuo Mulian jiumu jing.
- In both the Putian Mulian Play and Precious Scroll, the name of Mulian’s mother is given as Liu Sizhen. This name originates in the Foshuo Mulian jiumu jing. In the Mulian plays circulated in southern Fukien, the mother’s name is Shizhen. This might have been inherited from northern Fukien plays, in which the name was adopted from the Mulian jiumu jing. This name is not found in plays from other regions. It is thus observed that the northern Fukien plays were established under the influence of the Mulian jiumu jing, albeit via the Precious Scroll.
- The end of the Putian Mulian Play contains the story of Princess Miaoshan, a variant name of Bodhisattva Guanyin. This was derived from the Xiangshan Precious Scroll.
- The three points above allow the conclusion that the Putian Mulian Play was derived from the Mulian jiumu jing. It appeared around late Yuan and early Ming times, most likely because Northern Fukien women were fond of precious scroll literature. It may at least be inferred that the Putian Mulian Play is the oldest extant Mulian drama text, which took shape before the Zheng Zhizhen (1518-1595) 1582 version.
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