論明末清初女性詞評出現“林下風”傾向的内涵與社會文化意義

The Connotation and Socio-cultural Significance of the Trend of “Style of Under-the-Grove” in Remarks on Ci-poetry by Woman Writers in Late Ming and Early Qing Times

Authors

  • 莫岸洪 (Anhong MO) 肇慶學院

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24112/sinohumanitas.342272

Keywords:

明末清初, 女性詞評, 林下風, 名士化, Late Ming and early Qing times, remarks of ci-poetry by women, Style of Under-the-Grove, renowned scholars

Abstract

LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in Chinese; abstract also in English.

明末清初(約明代崇禎年間到清代康熙年間),女性詞評出現一股“林下風”傾向的潮流:即用“林下風”作爲正面批評女性詞的標準,頻繁出現於明末清初涉及女性詞評的文獻中,而其中詞評部分佔最大比例的是對晚明和清初女詞人的評論。明末清初對女性詞評的“林下風”傾向與當時詞壇的風氣轉變密切相關。明代中期以來在尊崇婉約及易安體爲正宗的詞壇背景下,女性詞受到了空前的重視和揄揚。評論女詞人著意强化“林下風”,其實標舉的是女性詞人其詞具有男性詞人的“閒雅”、“淡遠”、“混茫”的風格内涵,與“儂婉”、“纖佻”、具有“脂粉之態”的閨秀詞是相異的,這具有言過其實的成分,其實是有意將女詞人抬舉到名士的地位,這是顛倒性别的批評名士化的傾向,其名士内涵是風雅儒生、有才文士。這根源於明末清初出現才女“名士化”傾向的社會文化背景:包括推崇“才情”的女性觀;“女務外學”的社會背景;才女品藻的名士化傾向。從中可看出,女性的詞體創作地位在當時文壇得到較大提升,女性的社會文化地位也在一定程度上得到提升。但也是女性詞評無法突破以男性爲中心批評標準的體現,女性仍然是在男權的社會框架下處於弱勢的社會文化地位。

The “Style of Under-the-Grove” became a standard, positive appraisal of ci- poems by woman writers, which is frequently found in documents of the late Ming to early Qing times (mid to late 17th century) that involve criticism of ci-poems by woman writers. This trend of identifying the “Style of Under-the-Grove” in the remarks on ci-poems by woman writers of the time is closely related to the changes in the poetic arena. Since the middle of the Ming when the feminine ci style of the past enjoyed high esteem, the works by woman writers were given unprecedented attention and praise. The emphasis on the “Style of Under-the-Grove” in the remarks on ci poetesses is a purposeful act of highlighting the “elegant,” “remote,” and “unrestrained” styles, which are usually found in works by male poets. These styles differ drastically from the typical boudoir ci-poems marked by “subtlety,” “delicateness,” and “bearings of rouge and makeup.” These kinds of remarks are exaggerating; their real intent was to raise the status of these poetesses to the same level as the renowned scholars of the time. This is a trend of reversing gender priority and a criticism of making renowned scholars, an appellation for elegant intellectuals and talented scholars. This trend originated in the socio-cultural context of late Ming and early Qing times, when talented women were compared with and even “made” scholars of great renown. This context included the promotion of talents of ladies, pursuing “external studies,” and evaluating talented women by adopting the standard of a male scholar of renown. It can be seen that the status of ci writing by female poets saw a significant rise, and the socio-cultural status of women was also raised to a certain extent. However, it also reflects that remarks of ci-poetry by women cannot break through the standard of male-centered criticism. Women were still in a weak socio-cultural position under the patriarchal social framework.

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Published

2022-07-01

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Section

論文