載道與抒情:明清之際散文發展的兩種論述兼論古文與小品之關係

Two different Perspectives on the Development of Prose during the Ming-Qing Transition Era and the Relationship between Classical Prose and Vignette Essays

Authors

  • 李向昇 (LEE Heung Sing) 香港大學中文學院

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.24112/sinohumanitas.342273

Keywords:

言志, 載道, 明清散文, 小品, 古文, “expressing one’s aspiration”, “representing the Way”, Ming-Qing prose, vignette essays, classical prose

Abstract

LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in Chinese; abstract also in English.

新文學運動時期周作人不滿一般論文學史者對明清散文發展的論述,認爲他們一來抹殺了晚明小品,二來以桐城派概括清代文章太過籠統。因此他標榜晚明小品,推崇公安派的文學觀,甚至引爲新文學運動的同調。他的這一觀點影響巨大,後凡論述明清散文者無不論及小品文,衆多文學史著作也開始重視明清散文,且尤其推崇小品文。然而實際上這一現象的形成有一個發展的過程,背後涉及到了載道與抒情兩種文學觀之間的角力。兩種論述之間何者更爲準確?如何較爲客觀準確的描述明清之際散文的發展,以及古文與小品之間的關係,成爲了問題。本文擬從周作人對明清散文的論述切入,梳理前人對明清散文發展的兩種論述,並揭示這兩種論述背後的文學觀,從而指出周作人二分“言志”與“載道”的論述儘管未必準確,但對論述明清散文發展仍有重要意義:分析明清之際小品文作者的古文觀與古文家的小品文創作,可以知道小品與古文的關係並不如周作人所描述的那般對立,然而周作人所强調的“言志”與“載道”的緊張關係,正正是明清散文演變的内在動力。

During the New Culture Movement, Chou Tso-jen 周作人 was dissatisfied with general discussions on the development of Ming-Qing prose. He considered that these discussions left late-Ming essays unheeded and that they overgeneralized Qing-dynasty prose and placed it under the Tongcheng 桐城 School. Chou instead promoted late-Ming vignette essays and advocated the literary thoughts of the Gong’an 公安 School, even regarding them as a parallel of those from the New Culture Movement. These thoughts were highly influential. Ever since then, scholars who discussed prose of the Ming and Qing dynasties could not avoid mentioning vignette essays. Consequently, in most studies of Chinese literary history there has been an emphasis on Ming-Qing prose, especially vignette essays. In fact, this phenomenon was formed as a result of the competition of two literary thoughts, namely “representing the Way” 載道 and lyricism. There are some issues worth our consideration: Which of the two literary thoughts is more accurate? How can we evaluate prose development during the Ming-Qing transition in a fair and accurate manner? What is the relationship between classical prose and vignette essays? Starting from Chou’s disagreement with discussions of Ming-Qing prose, the present study aims to clarify the two discussions on the development of the prose of Ming-Qing times and discuss their literary thoughts. Although the discussion of the dichotomy of “expressing one’s aspiration” 言志 and “representing the Way” by Chou is not accurate, his discussion of the development of Ming-Qing prose is of significance. Based on the analysis of the views of classical prose of Ming-Qing essayists, we observe a less tense relationship between vignette essays and classical prose than what Chou discussed. However, his emphasis on the tense relationship between “expressing one’s aspiration” and “representing the Way” became the major motivation for change and development of Ming-Qing prose.

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Published

2022-07-01

Issue

Section

論文