Syncretism of The Three Teachings in Gu Ying’s Yushan Salons Held in Late Yuan Times
Keywords:顧瑛, 三教合一, 玉山雅集, Gu Ying, syncretism of the Three Teachings, Yushan salons
LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in Chinese; abstract also in English.
Gu Ying (1310-1369), a famous literatus from Kunshan (modern Kunshan, Jiangsu province) in the late Yuan Dynasty, was a representative figure of the syncretism of the Three Teachings. When he presided over the Yushan salons, he wore Confucian apparel, a Buddhist hat and Daoist shoes. A group of Confucian scholars, Buddhist monk-poets and Daoist adepts gathered around him. Among them were Liu Guan and Huang Jin, two of the “Four Eminent Confucian Scholars”; the Buddhist monk Liang Qi from Longmen; the lay Buddhist practitioner Ni Zan; the Daoist adept priest Zhang Yu from Mountain Mao; the Transcendent of Stupidity, Huang Gongwang; and the Iron Flute Daoist adept Yang Weizhen. They brought together different fields of literature, calligraphy, painting and drama, and thus made a milieu for multi-layered interdisciplinary cultural exchanges between Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism. Based mainly on two books, Scenic Spots of Yushan and Caotang Salons, the present paper explores the features of this syncretism of the Three Teachings and analyzes the multi-layered cultural significance of the Yushan salons.
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