The Differences in Coaching Behaviors between Individual and Team Sports at College Varsity level
Keywords:Instruction, feedback, hustle
LANGUAGE NOTE | Document text in English; abstract also in Chinese.
This study examined the differences in coaching behaviors between individual sports (ISs) and team sports (TSs). Participants were head-coaches of ten varsity teams from a college in the USA. Twenty practice sessions (two practices per coach) were videotaped and the Arizona State University Observation Instrument was used for data collection. A 2 x 2 MANOVA (sports x observations) revealed that significant differences in five coaching behaviors between the two types of sports. Specifically, ISs coaches demonstrated significantly greater (p < .05) rate per minute (RPM) than did TSs coaches in Preinstruction (M = 1.41 ± .12 vs. .73 ± .13), Questioning (M = .55 ± .11vs. .29 ± .31), and Praise (M = .84 ± .37 vs. .36 ± .38). TSs coaches demonstrated significantly greater (p < .05) RPM than did ISs coaches in Postinstruction (M = 1.28 ± .18 vs. .56 ± .06) and Hustle (M = .89 ± .12 vs. .13 ± .06). No significant differences (p > .05) were identified in Concurrent Instruction, Positive Modeling, Negative Modeling, Scold, and Management behaviors between the coaches. In conclusion, the coaches from the ISs and TSs employed different coaching behaviors that reflected the features of their specific sports.
本研究檢驗了大學生代表隊個人與團隊運動教練行為之間的差異。研究對象為位於美國東部一所大學的10支運動代表隊的主教練。研究者在他們進行正常訓練時對10名教練員的教練行為進行了錄像記錄 (總共錄了20堂訓練課，每名教練員兩堂)。資料採用亞里桑納州立大學系統觀測儀收集。通過2x2多元方差分析檢驗，在 個人與團隊運動之間有五種教練行為顯出明顯差異 (p<.05)。具體如下：個人運動教練比團隊運動教練使用了明顯多的訓練前指導 (M=1.41±.12 vs. .73士.13)，訓練中提問 (M=.55±.ll vs. .29士.31)和表揚(M=.84±.37 vs..36±.38)；團隊運動教練比個人運動教練使用了明顯多的訓練後指導 (M=1.28±.18 vs. .56士.06)和訓練中催促 (M=.89±.12 vs. .13士.06)。然而，個人與團隊運動的教練在使用訓練中指導正或負面示範叱責和組織/管理等教練行為時沒有明顯差異 (p>.05)。結論：個人與團隊運動項目的教練使用了不同的教練行為而這些教練 行為反映了他們所教運動項目的特點。
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